This may be explained by regional security risks, unresolved conflicts and the authoritarian character of political regimes.
Regional Economic Development Compared: EU-Europe and the American South
Nevertheless, it also points to the potential of a peace dividend once political conflicts in the region are resolved. Interestingly, Tunisia since and Egypt since have adopted ongoing medium-term IMF programmes the Extended Fund Facility , but their fiscal and structural reform targets are not particularly ambitious. They aim at avoiding further deterioration of fiscal and external accounts rather than their substantial improvement.
SEMC also face numerous structural and institutional obstacles to sustainable, more balanced and socially just economic growth. The private sector, which can generate higher growth and more jobs, struggles with bureaucratic barriers, corruption, poor governance and outdated regulations.
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Most countries continue to restrict foreign investment and convertibility of their currencies even for current-account transactions. Intra-regional trade remains limited despite the signature of numerous trade agreements. Poor education systems in the region are unable to offer the young labour force the knowledge and skills required by a modern economy. Most SEMC struggle with remaining pockets of illiteracy and early drop-out from the school system. Unless economic and governance reforms are accelerated, SEMC have little chance to get out of a low growth trap and address their socio-economic problems — such as high youth unemployment, low female labour-market participation, poverty, low-quality education, underdeveloped infrastructure, and poor business and investment climate.
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They also risk public-debt and balance-of-payments crises. SEMC need assistance from the international financial and development institutions and developed countries — in the first instance, from the EU. Such aid, both financial and technical, should be strictly conditional on progress in economic, political and governance reforms. Resolving regional conflicts could also help the economic and social agenda by offering a substantial peace dividend. There is no reliable data for Libya and Syria due to ongoing civil wars.
Biondi and M. Talbot and S. Torelli eds.
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Bruegel senior fellow Zsolt Darvas talks to Sean Gibson in this Deep Focus podcast about how the EU can improve its cohesion policy, citing the best examples of its implementation and stressing the methodological difficulties in measuring its effectiveness. But this indicator is not observed, only estimations can be made.
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This post shows that estimates of the European Commission, the IMF, the OECD and national governments widely differ from each other and all estimates are subject to very large annual revisions. The EU should get rid of the fiscal rules that rely on structural balance estimates and use this opportunity to fundamentally reform its fiscal framework.
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It has triggered responses focusing on the implications of output gaps for fiscal policy under EU rules, especially for Italy. But the debate about the reliability of output-gap estimates is more wide-ranging. Memo to the presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament. Initially formed in , the EPWG has collectively addressed issues related to trade, export credit agencies, austerity and development finance, while raising critiques of the wider economic system and elevating alternative models of development.
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Economic policy advice to the Moldovan Government
From macroeconomic conditions of formation to new institutes for development]. Teoriya evolyutsii sotsialno-ekonomicheskikh sistem [Evolution theory of the socio-economic systems]. Moscow: Economika, Shvetsov, A. Obshchesistemnaya i selektivnaya komponenty regionalnoy politiki [System-wide and selective components of regional policy].
Problemnyy analiz i gosudarstvenno-upravlencheskoye proektirovanie. Pravo [Problem analysis and state-managing design. Law], 2, Boisier, S. Regional Management in a New International Order. Quasi States and Quasi Firms. Santiago, Boisier S. Sukharev, O. Regionalnaya ekonomicheskaya politika; instituty, strukturno-organizatsionnyye izmeneniya, reindustrializatsiya [Regional economic policy; institutions, structural and organizational changes, reindustrialization].