Standard 1 : Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health. Standard 2 : Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology and other factors on health behaviors. Standard 3 : Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid health information and health-promoting products and services. Standard 4 : Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks. Standard 5 : Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.
Standard 6 : Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting to enhance health. Standard 7 : Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks. Standard 8 : Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.
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Given the number of health education topics — at least 10 — and grade levels preK , it is unlikely that there is enough time allocated to health education to cover all relevant topics for each grade. Thus, the NHES focus on skills that are transferable across topic areas. The emphasis on skills-based learning in health education — and other subject areas — has its share of critics. There are concerns that if we focus only on skills and do not adequately provide content that we are leaving out a critical ingredient which lays the foundation for behavior change.
In contrast, others say that we have emphasized content for too long and have given priority to the memorization of facts i. This tension between content and skill is particularly problematic in health education given that there are so many topic areas and little time allocated to health education in a given school year.
For example, there is no consensus about which topics to include as essential aspect of sex education content and which skills are best reinforced by sex education content at each grade level. Given the fact that sexual development is a key milestone for school age children and teens, from a developmental perspective alone it makes sense to reinforce decision-making and interpersonal communication skills utilizing sex education content.
California mandates parenting education. It is no surprise that funding drives priorities. Regardless, current funding levels for school health education not only vary widely but also are insufficient given the list of health concerns and current health status of young people.
There is a great need to look at the health and well-being of students across multiple domains and begin to appropriately map content and skill by grade level such that skills are being reinforced each year in conjunction with appropriate amounts of content within health and other curricular areas. Clearly, students should have both the knowledge and skills they need to make responsible healthy decisions.
At the federal level, there are two government agencies that are tasked with some aspect of improving student health — the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services. Overall, however, there is very little federal funding to support school health or direct classroom instruction about health. Instead, most of the federal funding goes to support state and local efforts to support health education through dissemination of best practices, guidelines, alignment and assessment tools, data and technical assistance.
Mostly, they provide funding for smaller projects that may supplement DASH-funded efforts. The OAH is charged with coordinating all activities within the U. OAH was also designed to carry out demonstration projects to improve adolescent health. Because ACF oversaw the Community Based Abstinence Education grant making program, it became synonymous with abstinence-only-until-marriage funding. Because each state submits its own plan to utilize Title V and PREP funding, it is unclear how much funding will support school-based efforts.
OPA is responsible for implementing the Title X family planning program, which provides public funding to support a national network of family planning providers that provide free or low-cost, confidential sexual and reproductive health services to low income, uninsured individuals, including adolescents.
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Many Title X family planning providers also have a community education program which may provide outreach and education within public schools. To map the existing status of health and sexuality education in your state, you might begin by:. Understanding who the decision makers are when it comes to health education and their respective roles.
Key decision makers include members of the:. Some states require School Health Advisory Committees. These committees typically are mandated to include certain school staff e. Learning more about professional development requirements for teachers. For example, do teachers have to obtain a certain number of professional development hours each year? Does the required professional development have to be in their content area?
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Some questions to ask:. Who are the champions? What funding opportunities exist at the local level to support sexuality education implementation? As you drill down to an individual school district after having mapped the state policies and content standards, it becomes an issue of school climate, capacity and available resources.
To begin, you will want to learn:. About the local decision-making structure including local school board, superintendent, building principals, curriculum coordinators or directors and individual classroom teachers. How much support exists for sex education in the curriculum at the district i. If sex education is being taught. If so, at what grade levels? How many instructional minutes per grade level? Who is teaching sex education and what training do they have?
If health education is being taught at the elementary level, it is typically a school nurse or classroom teacher. In middle and high school, typically a health or physical education teacher is charged with teaching sex education. Since health educators are not required to have any background in sexuality education per se in order to teach, what kind of training do these educators have?
What curriculum is being used if any, and is it accurate and developmentally and age-appropriate? This guide dissolves the mystery and bridges gaps between other books on mental illness by explaining psychiatric diagnoses in readily understandable terms. It presents symptoms and discusses treatment options.
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